Characteristics of the Network Organization

A number of management researchers have turned to examining organizations as networks of dynamic relationships. This view offers a mechanism to enable managers to analyze the processes of interaction unfolding in their organizations and to think about the real complexity of organizational life. The dynamic perspective may also provide easier solutions to problems. It is sometimes easier for managers to change one or a few network patterns in the interest of increased efficiency or improved attitudes than to shift entire departments around, as one would have to do in manipulating organizational charts.Analysis of the static structural elements tends to focus on the organization as a whole, to take a long-range view. A good deal more is added in network research. One can look more closely at individuals or subunits making up various networks and translate organizational issues of centralization into individual issues of centrality. One can specify in terms of interactions the various roles people play in networks. And one can move relatively easily from thinking about organizations as totalities to thinking about various individuals in those organizations.A network is a set of linkages among a defined set of people in which the character of the linkages is specified. Thus, a network may be built around job requirements or how best to get things done. It may be structured by social interactions or how people interact informally. Network observations began in laboratory research studies in the 1950s but were not done in real organizations. Groups of three, four, or five persons were studied to discover how variously imposed structures influenced problem solving and member attitudes. Structure was varied by imposing rules about who could talk to whom. The findings from these studies were consistent: for simple problems, centralized networks, in which information about the problem is sent to just one person, produced solutions faster with fewer errors than did decentralized networks, in which information was sent to everyone.However, when problems were complex,decentralized networks were superior. Unfortunately, findings from laboratory investigations such as these do not always generalize to people at work.For many years the results of these small-group network studies were presented in management textbooks as the gospel about how to engage in efficient problem solving. The research exhausted itself, however, and a number of years passed before interest was renewed in organizations as net works of relationships. One reason for the stagnated research was that larger organizational networks could not be studied. Yet these reflected the complex interrelationships found in reality. Complex networks were ignored until the 1970s because reducing data from them to understandable forms required high-speed computers that were not readily accessible. Today a number of computer programs are available for describing networks.One kind of network of interest to managers is the grapevine. Grapevines are naturally occurring net works that are familiar to all members of organizations. Efficient and fast, grapevines are an avenue for managers both to obtain information about what’s going on in their organizations and to send out important information. Political leaders understand the value of pretesting their constituents’ acceptance of new programs and plans by leaking them to large-scale networks. Grapevines offer informal ways for managers to move information for any of a variety of purposes.Various networks coexist in organizations and are used for purposes other than moving information. The three types, aside from the grapevine, are task networks, authority networks, and social networks. All the types overlap and serve different organizational functions. One set of high- technology military organizations over a six-month period found that task networks developed more quickly and became stable sooner than other kinds of networks. These were closely followed by the development of social networks. Authority networks were much slower to develop and never reached the level of maturity of the other two kinds. These findings are somewhat surprising, particularly for military organizations. They suggest that managers should pay close attention, in particular, to the development of task networks, implementing change where these networks appear to be dysfunctional to the goals of the organization.A number of network properties have been identified. Although it is not difficult to infer some of the consequences of these properties for organizations, little research relating them to organizational performance has been done. These network properties follow:- Connectedness, or the extent to which people in networks are interconnected
- Centrality, or the degree to which network relations follow the formal organizational hierarchy
- Reciprocity, or the degree to which there is two-way communication
- Vertical differentiation, or the degree to which different organizational levels are represented in the network
- Horizontal differentiation, or the degree to which different job areas are represented in the networkWithin a network are clusters that are more richly interconnected than the rest of the network. Coalitions and cliques are two types of clusters. Coalitions are temporary alliances among people for some distinct purpose, such as control over an activity. Coalitions often form in times of unusual or non-routine demand, perhaps when firms develop new products or when the environment appears threatening. A joint venture is a coalition, as is the formation of a cartel such as OPEC. Cliques are permanent clusters, often involving friendships, in which all members are directly linked and may or may not exchange information about things other than friendship. Coalitions and cliques can both be used to maximize the power of some group in an organization.While managers should be sensitive to the development of coalitions and cliques in their organizations, helping them to develop or to deteriorate depending on the circumstances, they also need to be aware of how networks within organizations are tied to the outside. This issue has surfaced in the sociological literature under the rubric of the strength of weak ties.The strength of a tie between two individuals within a network or in two different networks is defined by the amount of time, emotional intensity, intimacy, and reciprocal services that characterize the tie. The stronger the tie between any two individuals, the larger the proportion of people in a group to whom they will both be tied by either a strong or a weak tie. Strong ties produce dense networks, weak ties less dense networks. Strong ties are likely to create closed systems, impenetrable to outside information. Strongly tied groups cannot obtain or disseminate information, co-opt their environments, or develop coalitions with outsiders.If organizations are to reach their goals, they must be permeable and sensitive to outside conditions, however. Thus, some persons in any given cluster need to have weak ties with persons in other clusters. These weak ties afford opportunities for the flow of information, ideas, innovations, and resources across groups, making them enormously important for diffusion in and across organizations. The importance of weak ties might suggest to a manager that he needs to develop them where they are nonexistent and that removing them by transferring or firing people or by changing their jobs may actually harm the organization. Alternatively, strong internal ties have been related to low internal conflict.Thus far, the strength of weak ties has been investigated only in friendship networks, but the results offer insight to managers. One example of the function of weak ties is demonstrated in finding a job. It has long been known that American blue-collar workers find new jobs more frequently through personal contact than through any other method. This appears to be true, too, for professional, technical, and managerial positions. One investigation asked a sample of such workers where they obtained information that helped them get new jobs. The researchers concluded that the vast majority of people who found new jobs through personal contacts used weak ties (they had been in touch with those contacts occasionally or rarely). Because those with whom we have weak ties move in different circles, they have different information than we do, making them valuable job contacts.Source:

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Art and Home Decor

Do you have a room, a hallway, or just a wall that lacks character? You like the wall color and room furnishings, but something is missing to create the feel and ambiance that you want to project. Wall art is the necessary decor accessory that tie together the colors and style of your space. As we discussed in a previous article; (The Art of Selecting Art), most interior designers believe wall art is perhaps the most cost effective decorative accessory to create the mood and feeling you desire for a given space.A big key in selecting your wall art decor, is how you want to use the space. Do you want to entertain in that space? Is this space maybe your office or a hobby room? Perhaps the space is a unique fun area for the kids to play in or an exercise or workout space. Art exists for all of the above and many more uses, and it is the art that will become the focal point in setting the room’s theme.For your quiet retreat, you may want the soothing feel many beach art pieces provide. Your entertainment room art should reflect the vigor and lightness of landscapes or the boldness of modern art. Decorate the children’s area with light fun cartoon like pictures. Often we overlook the kitchen area. The kitchen is a natural gathering place and need not be strictly utilitarian. Today, a wide range of cuisine art exists to reflect a sense of comfort and warmth, and a love of life.One other point that we should not ignore, is the frame which surrounds your art. While frames have been around since the beginning of art, we often think of frames as only a convenient way to hang our art. The right frame, however, will add significantly to the presentation of your art and your personal enjoyment and fulfillment. Please take the time to consider the frame; as an integral part of your wall art decor, which creates the ambiance you desire.Today, with the internet, you have an overwhelming selection of decorative wall art available at your fingertips. Consider how you will use each space in your home and then turn on your computer and click on the type of wall art that will express your creative side and enhance your living space. In the comfort and convenience of your home, sit back and relax and have some fun surfing the web for your decorative wall art. Enjoy.

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Top 5 Small Business Ideas for Women

Women are no exception to the ‘be an entrepreneur’ fever and with home based and online businesses succeeding these days being an entrepreneur is at everyone’s reach. And more and more stay at home moms have started home based businesses of their own. Running a business at home not only allows women to spend more time with their family, but also rewards them financially without having the need to spend time or money on travel and other expenditures. With any idea becoming a huge business nowadays, a simple home based business idea can become more gratifying. Here are a few home based small business ideas for women to choose from. Grocery shopping The long queues and people flood at every grocery shop have made grocery shopping a pain in the head these days and people have started exploring ways of having their groceries delivered to them at their doorsteps. Instacart’s business model has proved the statement more correct and with the revenue Instacart makes each month, a grocery delivery service would be one of the best small business ideas for women. Event planning Not every parent has the time to prepare and organize their kid’s birthday or graduation party. If you are one woman with qualities to organize a meeting or a social gathering and get work done from your employees at the last minute, becoming an event planner would be the best business idea for you. Event planning though being a desirable business already, women with their natural knack for organizing and getting things done, can easily make their mark in the industry. Laundry services Laundry is yet another household activity that gets the nerves of today’s people. Though mandatory, laundry sounds boring and the wait at laundromats is tiresome. A laundry list is more than enough to ruin a perfect weekend and get it right back on the track to being cursed. As the perfect time for starting a laundry delivery service and no such capital to run one; starting a laundry service business definitely tops the big list of small business ideas for women. And with a small capital to purchase the necessary equipment, you could start a laundromat of your own right at your home. Masseuse Are you a certified masseuse with no such capital to start your very own massage parlor? A massage service at their home is something any person would crave for. With a small expenditure for marketing your service in the neighborhood, a massage service business could generate the required revenue. And with the demand for on-demand services on the rise, massage service is yet another choice for women to start as a business. Copy writer (or) Proof reader This is by far the best of all the small business ideas for women. Content marketing has become the main focus of the digital marketing era and with websites hiring more and more content writers for marketing their products, the need for copy editors is on the rise. And if you have the perfect grammar skills becoming a copy writer would be the best choice for you to make. With just a computer and internet you could enroll yourself and start freelancing as a copy writer or register as a business.Catching your own errors might be exhausting, but it’s not the same case with others. And with the perfect grammar skills and the creepy skill to spot mistakes you could be the best proof reader the internet has fancied all these days.Look at cost effective ways of marketing your business in the neighborhood without which no businesses can generate any possible revenue. Advertising in the local magazine and print fliers are the most effective ways of marketing your business. With the attention mobile applications have gained, a mobile app could do great assistance to your business. There are several freelance app developers and application development companies who create personalized mobile applications for your business for a cheap charge.’Small business ideas for women’ is an almost infinite list. With just the will to start a business and the effort to put in, even the weirdest idea could become a successful business.

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Online Education Background Checks: Employers and Student’s First Choice to Legitimacy!

As higher education becomes more of a determining factor in one’s eligibility for all sorts of jobs and the employers are keeping their consent over quality employment, many job applicants are looking for shortcuts to remain competitive in the marketplace. And since the economic halt had started and finding a job become a harsh business, people are trying to get their way out by forging their educational documents or even buying education to fake “diploma mills.” They don’t even know that this could not only humiliate them in front of their prospective employer but also end their career in a gutter. A total loss of time, money and mental peace.Every single employer is now looking for the best employee and they are judging their prospective candidate on the basis of education and the legitimacy of their credentials earned during their study. Employers are keeping a close eye on every single incumbent by running comprehensive education background checks as they knows the fact that educational success reveals a great deal about an applicant’s credentials and motivations; and through education background checks, an employer can get an accurate depiction of their qualifications as well their intentions of playing a role in development of the company.Some Astounding Facts about Forged Education Credentials Caught by Education Background Checks:In 2004, the US General Accounting Office revealed that nearly 200,000 federal employees had at the very least exaggerated education credentials on their resume.
SHRM(Society for Human Resource Management): More than 53% of job applicants falsify information on their resumes; one in four candidates misrepresents his educational attainment.
ADP Hiring Index: 49% of employment, education and or credential reference checks reveal discrepancies in the applicant’s information.
Association of Certified Fraud Examiners: 41% of applicants lie about their education.The above inclination of facts about the defined scenario indicates an increase in the likelihood that employer’s who don’t verify education will hire unqualified personnel. Hiring unqualified personnel, in turn, leads to higher employee turnover, forcing the organization to incur expensive recruiting and replacement costs.The Other Cunning Problem: Online Degree Scams aka Diploma Mills:The second biggest and most souring, surging problem for employers are fake diploma mills which are playing a role in instigating fraud among the innocent people. These online cheap diploma/degree making factories are looting people for fast track degrees.Diploma mills and degree mills as well as various websites, advertise very realistic, physical diplomas and transcripts, which have been found to deceive many employers. Therefore, with the striking statistics of resume fraud, employers should think twice about using physical diplomas as proper evidence of a degree. Because the requirement for education qualification has become so demanding, education fraud is becoming more prevalent, as are the establishments of diploma mills.Consequently, in order to combat education fraud, laws have recently been passed in which companies who manufacture fake degrees and diplomas are considered to have committed a Misdemeanor.Why and How Education Background Checks Can Maintain Equilibrium Between Employers and Job Seekers?Many employers view particular educational qualifications as a key factor in seeking new employees. Moreover, education is a prerequisite for many positions because it ensures applicable knowledge of a subject matter, or more importantly, a required license for the position.Educational history may be the most commonly falsified information on an application or resume. Some estimates place the incidence of resumes containing erroneous education information as high as 30 percent. Clearly, employers should be extremely cautious. And they are not accepting copies of a degree from candidates as proof of their graduation given that it can simply be a clever forgery paid for by the applicant.Education background checks or education verification is the only way to prevention not only for the employers but also for the people who are looking for education but a legitimate one.Current System of Education Background Checks and Degree/ Diploma Verification Are Not Enough!At present, human resource departments in companies directly contact the concerned educational institution and undertake verification. This is no longer a viable solution, considering the increase in the number of recruitment’s, and the time taken for verification. This is also not a fool proof method.
A second method, often adopted by many of the larger corporations, is to outsource their employment verifications to background screening companies, who maintain large personnel databases.Online Education Background Checks is the Most Modern and Guaranteed Way to Nab a Forged Educational Document with a Plus of Diploma Mill Identification: Online education background checks is the system of online degree, diploma and education verification. The system consists of a database of fake colleges and universities and as well as the misdemeanors who faked their documents in past. It is now the best free online resource for the employers as well as for the students, who can check their institutions as well. It’s a killer product for the keen employers as well as for the legitimate education seeking students.Benefits for Employers Using Online Education Background checks:Employers can be able to save themselves from a negligent hiring lawsuit.
Employers can be able to hire the best qualified employee for their respective positions.
Online education background checks are fast then conventional education verification process, enabling an employer to make quick hiring decision.
Online education background checks can save money and good amount of time.Benefits for the Students Using Online Education Background checks:Assurance that the institution is meeting certain educational quality standards.
Reasonable grounds for believing that the institute will continue to meet them.
Assurance that their Degrees will be widely accepted by the employers, professional associations, other colleges and universities.
Belief that their Degree will reap the benefits associated with sound and high-quality educational standards.Concluding Remarks:Falsified education credentials have become a serious issue in the workforce; it breaches the faith on employees who are involved, especially when it can directly affect other employees and the company as a whole. It is also a serious blunder on the part of the employer who should have done proper education background checks; a mistake that could essentially hinder their current position.Education background checks for employment; verify the certification, training, or educational claims of a job applicant. The universities, colleges, vocational schools, etc. are checked to verify dates of attendance and graduation, degrees or certifications obtained, majors studied, GPA, and honors received by a potential job candidate. The verification of education process is an important part of a quality pre-employment background check.Although a federal law has been implemented to target diploma mills that give out phony diplomas, the problem still exists and is far from being corrected. In the meantime, employers and students must remain steadfast about conducting education background checks that include verifying academic credentials and institutions for their legitimacy.The online qualification verification and diploma/degree mill checking system is significant source of help to the employers and students looking for easy and free of cost education background checks.

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A Guide to Help You Pick the Best Air Purifier for Your Loved Ones

Holidays are around the corner. This is the time of year when people start purchasing gifts for their loved ones. If you are going to purchase an air purifier for someone you love, we have some helpful tips for you. If you want to purchase the best unit, you may be able to use this guide to your advantage. Read on to find out more.

1: Set Your Budget

Just like anything you purchase, make sure you have set your budget first. The price of the unit will vary based on a lot of factors, such as the capacity, filter type, features, and brand of the unit. If you don’t have a flexible budget, we suggest that you go for a product that is available to purchase for less than $300.

2: Consider the Needs of the Recipient

Your next move is to consider the needs of your recipient. If you are going to purchase this unit for everyday use, we suggest that you go for a unit that comes with a HEPA filter. On the other hand, if your loved one has a specific need, we suggest that you consider a specialized unit.

For example, if they are more prone to respiratory issues, such as allergies and infections, we suggest that you get a UV purifier for them. The devices are designed to neutralize viruses and bacteria.

3: Think About the Available Space

Another primary factor is to consider the available space in the office or house of the recipient. For example, if they need a general-purpose unit for a small apartment, you may want to consider a filterless unit.

On the other hand, if they have plenty of free space, you may consider a bigger unit that features a higher airflow rating. These units are powerful enough to cover a large face.

4: Consider Extra Features

Lastly, we suggest that you consider additional features that they will just love. For example, some units come with an indicator that turns on when the filter needs to be replaced. This will allow the user to change the filter so that the device continues to work properly.

So, you may want to consider these features before you place your order. These features may not be important to you, but your friend may just be over the moon.

Long story short, we suggest that you consider these four tips if you are going to purchase a gift for your loved one on these holidays. Since the air is full of pollution during winter days, nothing can make a better gift than an air purifier. Therefore, you should consider these tips before looking for an online or physical store to make your purchase decision.

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